محل درج آگهی و تبلیغات
نوشته شده در تاريخ سه شنبه 16 ارديبهشت 1399
Iranian cinema began as a luxury for upper class citizens. It was first introduced by the Mozaffareddin Shah ( 5th Shah of the Qajar Dynasty) whom discovered it on a trip to france. When he arrived back in Iran, he wrote in his diary, "the machine projects on the wall and shows people in motion". He requested birthing ceremonies, celebrations, and weddings to be filmed and shown in the royal palace.
1906: Constitutional Revolution
The first feature length film was created by an American- Iran immigrant from Russia named Ovans Ohanian. It was called "Abi and Rabi" and finished production in the year 1930. Majority of the films produced during this era were modeled after silent films, advernture films, and melodramas.
Ovans Ohanian created the first acting school called The Cinema Artist Education Center. It focused on training actors and actresses.
The Lor Girl was Iran's first " Talkie" it was produced in 1933 and explored the differences between the current regime and the security the people felt under the rule of the Qajar Dynasty. Cinema during this time focused on news reels of current events such as the horse races, construction of the railway system, and the Anglo- Persian oil company.
World War Two
Expansion of the film industry led to the creation of the School of Television and Cinema which was established in 1969. This school encouraged ameatur film makers to pursue a career in film, and specifically sought out cross- cultural films to be shown in the Tehran International Film Festival, which began in 1972. The Film festival was created to promote the expansion of Cinematography and express humanitarian values. Submissions from various nations where excepted, facilitating the free exchange of ideas. This encouraged writers to be socially conscious.
Dubbing is the process of replacing the sounds that where produced in accordance to the film being shot with different sounds or new dialogue. This improved film distribution and increased the Iranian citizen's demand for film as films were now able to be tailor made for them.
Ex: Adding Indian sound tracks over American sound tracks
Depictions of War and Terrorism
Often war is depicted as political shock theatre, however, in Iranian cinema, films focus on Iranians as the victims of war, the consequences of war ( mourning process of loved ones), and how citizens struggle to maintain some since of normacy.
Peresepolis (2007) is a film that was produced by Marjane Satrapi and Vincent Paronnaud. It is based upon a graphic novel wrote by Satrapi. It tells the coming of age story of a young girl, whose parents are very liberal and oppose the rule of the Shah. As a result, they welcome the installation of the new traditional Islamic regime. However, once the new governmental power enforces strict sanctions, their family is often imprisoned and executed. Normal behaviors in America such as smoking and wearing lipstick are criminalized in Iran. The family chooses to send their daughter away to school to receive an education.
The comic book style of the film contributes to the viewers satirical critic of the new reigme. It causes the viewer to see the restrictions as ridulous or outrageous.
The veil becomes a symbolic prop that is supposed to represent "freedom" but really is seen as symbolic for the oppression of women.
The regime enforcers ( members of the clergy) grow on screen as they correct those who violate the new law. The portrayl of them stretching across the screen and hovering above iranains signifies their dominant position in society.
Similar to Amir in The Kite Runner, when she returns home she does not recognize her homeland and feels as if she herself is a tourist.
This film depicts the biography of a female film director, Forough Kia, similar to Out of Africa. She is a film director who must make a t.v. show about the perfect Iranian mother. The film is significant because it displaces very "taboo" situations, the main character is a divorced single mother who has an affair.
Symbolic prop: The wearing of the Veil which represents the mother having a voice in society and it being taken.
- A photograph is the center of the frame in a scene. A shadow is cast over half of the photo depicting the side of her self she shows the public and the side of her self she hides.
The male lead is never visually seen in the movie, this displays the strict definition and acceptableness of sexual relationships in the country.
The House is Black depicts the socio-economic effects of being physically disabled in Iran before the revolution. By detailing the lives of the lepers in the Babadaghi Leper Colony, a new type of Documentary called "Radical Humanism" is created.
The opening scene's Mise-en- scene is of a child who reads from a book "Lord, I praise thee for having given me hands to work Eyes to see the beauty of the world”, however his fingertips and eyes are severly damaged by the disease. Themes of despair caused by oppressive regime and thankfulness to simply be alive are shown through the depiction of celebratration for daily activities.
Similarly, Kandahar ( 2001) depics the consequences of War against the Soviet Union and Taliban in which many men are disabled.
Themes: Lack of social mobility- assigned status, despair
Also a pre- Revolution film the Close up depicts the economic struggles faced by the owner of a print shop, who is currently out of work. His story resignates with many Iranians who where poor because they where unable to find work before the revolution. One day, while he is taking the bus he is reading the screen play for the movie The Cyclist. When questioned about the play he claims to be the director, Mohsen Makhmalbaf.
Themes: Self Reflextivity- exhibited in use of closeups and voiceovers that illuminate the viewers thoughts, forgiveness (family whom he frauds allows the judge to not imprison him), desperation, loss, Fear of modernization: Iranian citizens experience a feeling of loss of indiviudality and having a place in the world.
نوشته شده در تاريخ سه شنبه 16 ارديبهشت 1399
Iranian Cinema: Before the Revolution
In recent years, post-revolutionary Iranian cinema has been praised in many international forums. What has attracted international audiences to this national cinema is its distinct style, themes, authors, idea of nationhood, and manifestation of culture. In this essay, I will contextualize the emergence of this new cinema by providing a brief historical background of Iranian national cinema, with an emphasis on the foundations of filmic art in that region.
If one were to trace the first visual representations in Iranian history, the bas-reliefs in Persepolis (c.500 B. C) would be one of the earliest examples. Persepolis was the ritual center of the ancient kingdom of Achaemenids. As Honour and Fleming  state, “the figures at Persepolis remain bound by the rules of grammar and syntax of visual language[.]” This style of visual representation reached its high peak about a thousand years later during the Sassanian reign. A bas-relief in Taq-e-Bostan (western Iran) depicts a complex hunting scene. Movements and actions are articulated in a sophisticated manner. We can even see the progenitor of the cinema close-up: a wounded wild pig escaping from the hunting ground (Omid, p.19). After the Arab invasion and conversion from Zoroastrianism to Islam —a religion in which visual symbols were avoided — Persian art continued its visual practices. Persian miniatures are great examples of such attempts. The deliberate lack of perspective enabled the artist to have different plots and sub-plots within the same space of the picture.
A very popular form of such art was Pardeh-Khani. Similar to the Benshi of silent Japanese cinema, a Pardeh-khan (narrator) would uncover the painting as the story progressed. Another type of art in the same category was Nagali. A Nagal (or storyteller) would do an entertaining performance usually in Ghahve-khanes (coffeehouses), which were the main forums for cultural interactions between people. As a performing artist, Nagal had to possess a good oratorical and singing voice as well as theatrical talent. Above all, the Nagal relied on his imagination a great deal, to improvise according to the audience’s feedback and add to the original tales that he was reciting. He would also acquire inspiration from the images and pictures fixed on the walls – pictures of religious leaders, sport heroes, epic characters – and appropriate them into his narrative. The dominant themes in Nagali were epics depicted from Shah name  or the story of Alexander’s quest for the elixir of life.
It is worth mentioning that there were many other dramatic performance arts that were popular before the advent of cinema in Iran. Khaymeshab-bazi (puppet show), Saye-bazi (shadow plays), Rouhozi (comical acts), and Ta’zieh (a form of Persian passion play, presentation of tragic dramas based on the martyrdom of Hossein, an extremely important figure in Shi’asm) are just a few examples. 
With respect to Iranian perception of imagery, one should be aware of the long tradition in poetry. From Yashts (the ancient Persian Hymns) to post-Islamic Sufi poetry, as well as contemporary Iranian poetry, we can find numerous examples of this fine art of image making. The extravagant use of symbolism and juxtaposition of codes and symbols gives Persian poetry a unique visual sense. 
Cinema Reaches Iranian Soil
It was on August 18, 1900 that the first Iranian photographer recorded images of life on celluloid. Mirza Ebrahim Khan Akkas Bashi was the official photographer of Mozaffar al-Din Shah’s court, who accompanied the monarch in his first visit to Europe. He was introduced to the “cinematographe” in France while they stayed in Paris in July of the same year to see the Exposition. On the same day of the Exposition, the Shah ordered Akkas Bashi to purchase all equipment necessary for recording and displaying the motion picture in his court. Akkas Bashi took his first images in Belgium while they attended the Festival of Flowers. These images are perhaps the first ethnographic footage taken in the history of Iranian cinema, even though its main purpose was documenting the Shah’s visit to Europe.
As we can see, film was brought to Iran by the King as a tool of entertainment for members of the monarchy and the royal court. After seeing the first film of his life, Mozaffar al-Din Shah writes in his travelogue diary:
“….[A]t 9:00 P.M. we went to the Exposition and the Festival Hall where they were showing cinematographe, which consists of still and motion pictures. Then we went to Illusion building ….In this Hall they were showing cinematographe. They erected a very large screen in the centre of the Hall, turned off all electric lights and projected the picture of cinematography on that large screen. It was very interesting to watch. Among the pictures were Africans and Arabians traveling with camels in the African desert which was very interesting. Other pictures were of the Exposition , the moving street, the Seine River and ships crossing the river, people swimming and playing in the water and many others which were all very interesting. We instructed Akkas Bashi to purchase all kinds of it [cinematographic equipment]and bring to Tehran so God willing he can make some there and show them to our servants.” 
Unlike many other places in the world, where cinema as marketable commodity was used as mass-entertainment medium , in Iran cinema circled amongst courtly nobles and the Royal family (like in Japan). Cinematography had to be presented on occasions such as weddings and circumcisions or other festivities in aristocratic settings, usually projected along with French comedy shorts that were imported through Russia.
The first public screening took place in Tehran in 1904, presented by Mirza Ebrahim Khan Sahaf Bashi. He arranged the screening in the back of his antique shop. In 1905, Sahaf Bashi opened the first movie theater in Cheragh Gaz Avenue in the national capital. There were no chairs in the Saloon and audiences had to sit on the carpeted floor, as they would sit in mosques or at Ta’zieh shows. Sahaf Bashi’s cinema did not last for more than a month, because of his political activities as a nationalist and an individual who was lobbying for a constitutional monarchy. Also, religious opposition provided the Shah’s police with a sufficient excuse to arrest Sahaf Bashi, close down the cinema and confiscate his projector and related equipment. He was soon sent into exile. Perhaps this was the first instance of censorship in the history of Iranian cinema.(Omid, p.870).
Two years later, a few Russian and Armenian immigrants individually tried to establish new movie theaters in Tehran. Russi Khan was the most successful figure among these new cinema owners. With the connections that he held in the Royal court, he could expand his business despite religious contentions. The presence of the Russian Army in the north and Tehran was another support for Russi Khan, since they shared the same nationality and provided an additional market for his enterprise. In 1909, with fall of the Mohammad Ali Shah (heir of Mozaffar al-Din Shah) and the success of the constitutionalists, Russi Khan lost his support. Consequently, his film theatre and photography studios were destroyed by the public. Soon after, other cinema theatres in Tehran closed down.
Movie theatres sprang up again in 1912 with the help of Ardeshir Khan (an Armenian -Iranian). Ghafary, a film historian in Iran, believes it was Ardeshir Khan who fashioned movie theater operation as an organized business. The existence of such an infrastructure encouraged other Iranians to open new movie theaters (Issari. p. 61). Another important person in this era was Ali Vakili, who established a few movie houses and a publication on show business in the late 1920s. Until the early 1930’s there were little more than fifteen theatres in Tehran and eleven in other provinces. By 1978 these numbers grew to a 109 in the national capital and 318 in various Iranian cities. 
Pioneers of Iranian Cinema
After Akkas Bashi, photographer for Mozafar al’Din shah, and Russi Khan, who was also hired by the Royal family to film court activities, Khan-baba Khan Mo’tazedi was the third Iranian person involved with cinematography. As an engineering student living in Paris, Mo’tazedi found work in a film company. This enabled him to learned how to operate a movie camera and how to process film. With his return to Iran in 1916 Mo’tazedi brought some film equipment (films, camera, projector and processing material). What began as a hobby eventually became his profession.
Mo’tazedi also became a court photographer. He shot a considerable amount of newsreel footage during the reign of Qajar to the Pahlavi dynasty.  Mo’tazedi is also credited for being the first person to have arranged a public screening exclusively for women before 1920. From the late 1920’s on, Mo’tazedi worked in the Iranian film industry and became one of the major cinema owners of the time. He was also the first to add Persian inter-titles to foreign films.
In 1925 a young Armenian-Iranian, Ovanes Ohanian (Oganianse), a Russian national who studied film in Cinema Akademi Of Moscow, returned to Iran. His goal was to establish a film industry in the country. Since he found it impossible to initiate any production without professionals in the field, Ohanian decided to begin a film school in Tehran. Within five years he managed to run the first session of the school under the name: “Parvareshgahe Artistiye cinema” (The Cinema Artist Educational Centre).  Acting and performance, rather than film production, were the cornerstones of the institution.
After five months, with a few of his graduates and the financial help of a theatre owner, Ohanian directed his first Iranian film, Abi va Rabi, (1929). The film, lensed by Mo’tazedi, was shot silent on 35mm black and white stock and ran 1,400 meters long.  As Ghafari states: “This film was patterned directly after the comic acts of the Danish cinema couple Pat and Paterson. Iranians had seen [films of] this couple many times in the cinemas and liked them.”  Abi va Rabi was received well by critics and the public. Unfortunately the only copy of the film burnt to ashes two years after its release in a fire accident in cinema Mayak, one of the first theatres in Tehran.
By the end of the school’s second session, Ohanian started his next project, another comedy entitled Haji Agha Aktor-e-Cinema (Haji Agha the Cinema Actor, 1933). The film was a reflexive construction (as appears in its title) about a traditionalist who is suspicious of cinema, but by the end of story recognizes the significance of film art. Haji Agha Aktor-e-Cinema did not do well at the box office. Not only were there technical shortcomings, but additionally, the release of the first Persian talkie (produced in India) diminished its prospects for profit. After the failure of his second film, Ohanian could not find any support for further activities. He left Iran for India and continued his academic career in Calcutta. Subsequently he returned to Iran in 1947, where he died seven years later.
The second Iranian director of that same era was Ebrahim Moradi. As a member of a guerrilla movement (Gangal) in the North of Iran during the late 1920’s, the young Moradi sought asylum in the Soviet Union with his father. Moradi lived in Russia for a few years, where he was introduced to the technical aspects of film. In 1929 he established his own film studio called Jahan Nama in a port city by the Caspian sea, Bandar Anzali. Moradi started shooting his first film Entegham-e-Baradar (A Brother’s Revenge) about a year later. By 1931, 1700 meters of film was edited but he had no money left for completing his project.
Privy to some information of cinematic activities in the National Capital, Moradi moved to Tehran in search of financial help. Yet the young director never completed his first film. In a few months, however, he started a new project, Bolhavas (The Lustful Man) a melodrama released in 1934. This silent film, which received good reviews, was the last Iranian feature production done within its borders until the end of the second World War.
Abdul Hossein Sepenta, the father of Persian talkies, was born in Tehran in 1907. As a young writer and poet, Sepenta went to India in the mid-1920s to study ancient Persian language and history. In Bombay, his friendship with professor Bahram Gour Aneklesaria (an expert in old Iranian languages) encouraged him to consider the new and developing medium of film. Through his adviser Dinshah Irani, Sepenta met Ardeshir Irani, another elite of the Bombay Parsi community. Irani was the executive director of Imperial Film, and agreed to invest in Sepenta’s first Persian talkie. Sepenta began educating himself about the film medium.
He met with Debaki Bose, a pioneer of Bengali cinema who was also interested in representing his culture in a new, epic form. After an introduction to the theory of film, Sepenta started writing his script, with Ardeshir Irani as technical supervisor. Irani also co-directed the film. Dokhtar-e-Lor (The Lor Girl) , the first Persian talkie to be released, is the product of this interaction. The film was an absolute success and stayed on Iranian screens for more than two years. Imperial film was so impressed by the success of the talkie that they offered Sepenta production control over another film. Sepenta made four more films for Imperial Film: Ferdousi (1934), Shireen va Farhad (1934), Cheshmhaye Siah (Black Eyes) (1935) and Leyla va Majnun (1936). Interestingly, he also made one film for the East India Film Company in Calcutta. All of his films dealt with the glorification of the old Iranian culture or the optimistic future of a modern Iran.
Sepenta returned to Iran in 1936 with the hope of establishing a film company with the help of government and private sector funding. Unfortunately, he failed to mobilize any support from either party. Due to his mother’s sickness and his financial situation Sepenta was forced to stay in Iran. To support his family he started working in a wool factory in Isfahan. Sepenta remained productive, publishing eighteen books and five films, and, as chief editor of two magazines, writing many articles on art and culture. At the age of 62, three years before his death in 1968, Sepenta tried his hand at film once again. But this time in a manner far from the epic form of his earlier work. With a simple 8mm camera Sepenta recorded the everyday reality around -footage which was has never been released for public screening.
Years of Absence
The period of 1937 to 1948 marked a decade of non-productivity in the history of Iranian national cinema. One can find many reasons for these years of cinema hibernation. The most obvious causes are: Iran’s general political crisis generated by the Second World War; the country’s occupation by allies; the undermining of the cinema industry by the establishment; and, of course, the domination of foreign films (especially Hollywood).
Reza Shah, the first monarch of the Pahlavi dynasty, came to power in the early 1920s. Despite his fascination with modernisation and technology, the Shah could not understand the importance of a film industry. The only contributions to cinema he made were the 500 Toman awarded to Mo’tazedi for his newsreel based on the Shah’s coronation.
After being impressed by a Mo’tazedi’s newsreel documenting the installation of an Anglo-Persian oil company in Khusestan, the Shah ordered the construction of a new movie theatre in Tehran. The industrial sights of his country on celluloid overwhelmed the Shah. As Mo’tazedi remembers, the Shah remarked: “Marvelous! How well done! What modern installations! But alas they [British oil company] give Iran little money….” Right after the screening, the Shah ordered the police chief to start building a movie theatre in the poor part of town. The name of the theatre was Tammadon (civilization!).  This was the most generous contribution made to Iran’s film industry by Reza Shah’s regime.
Reza Shah’s superficial depiction of civilization and modernity brought many Western values to Iranian society. For instance, he banned the chador for women, dictated a Westernized dress code for men, and forbade Iranian passion plays. Because of their long history of colonial interest in Iran, the Shah thought the British and Russians untrustworthy. So he turned to Germany for professional and technological knowledge. By the end of the 1930s there were about 400 German skilled labourers working in seven German based companies in Iran.
During World War II, the Allies found Iran to be a critical strategic zone for supplying Russians with military hardware. In spite of Iran’s proclamation of neutrality, the Allies demanded the deportation of German citizens from Iran. Due to negative responses from Reza Shah, Iran was invaded by the British (in the South West) and the Russians (from the North) on August 25, 1941. With American troops entering in October of the same year, Iran, as ‘The Bridge of Victory’, suffered the woes of occupation by three Western powers. Reza Shah was sent to exile by the British and was replaced by his son in September 1941.
Both the physical existence of Western powers and the cultural domination by Allies, made imperialism ever-present in the media. For propaganda purposes more cinema theatres were opened to show dubbed newsreels and expository documentaries. Hollywood productions dominated the screens and left no space for any local cultural activities.  Dubbing was one of the few means of participation for Iranians in the film industry during this era.
Since a large percentage of Iran’s population was illiterate, they were incapable of reading the explanatory inter titles, and many were unfamiliar with European languages. Dubbing was the ideal solution for distributors and cinema owners to gain further profit. For this purpose, many dubbing studios were establish between 1943 and 1965. The demand for the development of dubbing systems in Iran resulted in many local exports in the field of sound reproduction. But it also had its side effects, most notably that of slowing down the development of sync sound recording on the set for future activities. 
In 1947 Esmail Kooshan, an economist with a secondary degree in communications from the Univerum Film Aktiengesellschaft (UFA), returned to Iran.  On his way from Berlin he bought two European films which he dubbed in Persian in a studio in Istanbul. The commercial success of these two films increased his concern of the local film industry. Soon Kooshan established Mitra Film with the association of a few relatives and friends. The first feature production of the Studio was Toofan-e-Zendegi (1948) (Storm of Life), a critical social drama directed by Ali Daryabegi, a theatre director/actor who had no experience in filming. The film was a total failure at the box office and received no praise from critics.
Despite withdrawal of a few partners from the company, Kooshan did not give up and made his second film in the same year. This time Kooshan photographed and directed the film himself. Zendani-e-Amir (Amir’s Prisoner) had a relatively better rate of success, which encouraged Kooshan to proceed in his career as filmmaker. Finally, after another disappointing post-production response from Varieteh Bahar (The Spring Festival, 1949), Kooshan made his ground breaking film, Sharmsar (Ashamed, released in 1950). Sharmsar was produced under the name of Kooshan’s new company, Pars Film. This romantic musical with a woman as the main character depicts the story of a village girl who ends up in the city after being seduced by an urban man. But soon she recovers from her shock and employs her talents to achieve fame and fortune, then returns to her village. The lead character of the film was Dilkesh, a popular singer of the time. Indeed it was her presence which guaranteed the financial success of the film.
Meanwhile, other Iranians in the private sector, tempted to test their luck in the film business, stepped into the picture. Mohsen Badie produced the next blockbuster in the history of Iranian cinema: Velgard (Vagabond) by Mehdi Rais Firuz. This film, released in 1952, is a melodrama with moralistic overtones, accompanied by songs and suspenseful action. Issari suggests: “It was the combined box office success of Sharmsar and Velgard, […], that gave the Persian [Iranian] film industry a shot in arm and saved it from extinction.” 
The movie that really boosted the economy of Iranian cinema and initiated a new genre was Ganj-e-Qarun (Croesus Treasure), made in 1965 by Siamak Yasami. Yasami had worked with Kooshan prior to establishing his own company; Porya Film, in 1960. A huge financial success, Ganj-e-Qarun grossed over seventy million Rials (one million dollars). The theme of the film concerns the worthless and desperate life of the upper middle class in contrast with the poor and happy working class, which is ‘rich’ in morals.
Four years later Masud Kimiaie made Qeysar, an award winning film at the 1969 Tehran Film Festival. With Qeysar, Kimiaie depicted the ethics and morals of the romanticised poor working class of the Ganj-e-Qarun genre through his main protagonist, the titular Qeysar. But Kimiaie’s film generated another genre in Iranian popular cinema: the tragic action drama.
From 1950 to the mid-1960’s the Iranian film industry grew rapidly. Many studios were established as well as others that entered the cycle of the film industry independently. There were 324 films produced during this period (1950-1965). By 1965 there were 72 movie theatres in Tehran and 192 in other provinces.
The foundation of that new-born cinema was commercialism. It was saturated with dominant themes of dance, music, simplistic dramas and Persianized versions of Western popular movies. But it also brought about the possibility of an independent national cinema. One of the first efforts for such cinema was Farokh Ghafari’s Shab-e-Ghouzi (The Night of Hunchback, 1964). Filmed in a magic-realist form and based on a story from One Thousand and One Nights, Shab-e-Ghouzi was the first feature film selected for international festivals. The other notable film in this category is Khesht va Aiene (Mudbrick and Mirror, 1965), produced and directed by Ebrahim Goulestan, the owner of Goulestan studio. Goulestan created an alternative environment out of which sprung several outstanding documentaries throughout its operation until 1978. One of the best known production of Goulestan Studio is Khaneh Siah Ast (The House Is Black, 1963), a documentary written and directed by Forugh Farrokhzad, a leading poetess in contemporary Persian literature. This film was selected as the best documentary in the 1963 Oberhausen Film Festival.
By 1970 Iranian cinema entered into its mature stage. The College of Dramatic Arts, instituted in 1963, produced its first graduates at the decade’s beginning. Many progressive film co-ops and associations came into existence; and there were a few regular film festivals taking place in the country.
Young Iranians showed a great interest in avant-garde forms of cinema, which reflected their activities. One of the best known of such efforts was Cinemay-e-Azad (Free Cinema). The collective was formed by a group of cinema students and interested individuals in the mid-1970s. They started to screen experimental and short 8mm films by their members and soon supported and participated in each other’s projects. This movement spread around the country and in a short time they had their own national festival. The Ministry of Culture and Art also organised similar associations under the name of Anjoman-e-Cinemay-e-Javan (The Young Cinema Association) with collaborations by National TV.
One of the most important organisation which was (and still is) a great help to development of national cinema is The Institution for Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults. The institution was founded by Lili Jahan Ara, a close friend of Farah Diba (The Queen). With the support of Farah Diba, a library became the first project of the Institution. And in 1969 it started its cinema department. Soon many young talented filmmakers and animators joined the organization. The main attraction of the institution was its title, which could provide the artists relatively greater freedom of expression than elsewhere. Many prominent directors of Iranian national cinema started their careers there or made films for the institution. Among them are: Bahram Baizai, Amir Naderi, Abbas Kiarostami, Reza Alamzadeh and Sohrab Shahid-Sales.
The 1970s was a special decade for Iranian cinema. As Goulmakani states: “the seventies saw the height of the Shah’s confidence in his social and political successes. Deluding itself into believing that it had grown unassailably stable, the regime now allowed the making of a few films with critical social themes.” 
Many important filmmakers emerged from the pre-revolution era. Including Parvis Kimiavi, who made the reflexive masterpiece Mogholha (Mongols, 1973), a film which allegorizes the cultural imperialism of TV by comparing that situation to the invasion of Mongols. Bahram Baizai is the director of one of the ground-breaking films of the Iranian New wave, 1972’s Ragbar (Downpour). Sohrab Shahid-Sales is an auteur director who embodied his original style in his 1975 film Tabiat-e-Bijan (Spiritless Nature). Abbas Kiarostami is now a well known director of the 1990’s who directed one of the last films that screened before the revolution in 1978, Gozaresh (The Report). Dariush Mehrjui, a UCLA Cinema and Philosophy graduate, directed Gav (Cow) in 1969 and the controversial Dayerehy-e-Mina (Mina Cycle, 1975), which was banned for three years. The latter’s subject matter dealt with people involved in the blood business. Interestingly, the film was only banned until the government opened its first blood bank.
The new cultural, political and economic environment from mid-sixties to late seventies created a unique national cinema that had roots in Iranian perspectives of art, literature and culture. The mainstream commercial cinema in the 1970s encountered an innovative form of cinema. The counter cinema was a political cinema that developed its symbolic language due to a long history of censorship. This “Third” cinema was very different from that existing in Latin America, Africa or any developing countries, because of different social-historical contexts. Some of the filmmakers of that period were forced to leave the country for political and cultural circumstances. Those who stayed challenged the new fashion of religious and moral censorship of art and culture. It should also be noted that the attractive Iranian cinema of today is the outcome of a tradition developed in the pre-revolution era.
1. Honour, Hugh and John Fleming, The Visual Arts: A History. New Jersey, Prentice Hall Inc, 1992. Page: 96.
2. Shah name or Book of kings a vast epic based on pre-Islamic history and mythology by poet Ferdausi (10century A.D) in verse form.
3. A great introduction on art and in entertainment in Iran before the advent of cinema is provided in M. Ali Issari book: Cinema in Iran: 1900-1979 pages 40 -67.
4. This exert from a long poem can be a good example of such visualization, written by Sufi poet Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi 13 century A.D)
نوشته شده در تاريخ سه شنبه 16 ارديبهشت 1399
In 1947 economist Esmail Kooshan returned to Iran. On his way from Berlin he purchased 2 European movies and dubbed them in Persian. The marketable success of these films augmented his anxiety concerning the local film industry. Kooshan established Mitra Film with the help of several relatives and friends. In spite of several failures in 1950 Kooshan made his path-breaking work “Ashamed.”
Meanwhile, other locals in the private sector, tempted to check own luck in the cinema business. The movie that actually boosted the economy of the country’s cinema and started a new genre was “Croesus Treasure,” made by Siamak Yasami. It was an amazing financial success, “Croesus Treasure” made over one million dollars. After the initial successful movies, form 1950 to the mid-1960’s the local film sphere grew really fast. Many studios were created. There were 324 works made during this time period. By 1965 there were seventy-two movie theatres opened in Tehran and 192 in the provinces.
Iranian art cinema was born in 1962, when the initial documentary about a colony became what is now treated as the Iranian art film. It was a very powerful and amazingly compassionate film displaying all the humanist characteristics of the Iranian movies. But it was also created by a female – a claim any Iranian art cinema would be proud of – a feminist and a poet.
Naficy describes the 1960s as “a time of growing Western impact” (Naficy, 672-678). The administration of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi strengthened its power, with the assistance of oil finances and US support. Foreign interests were central in the media. Nevertheless, New Wave of local film-makers appeared, who utilized advanced technologies and were not scared by social comments. The poetic and generally critical essence of the Iranian New Wave called for the tastes of the major opposition groups – the radical intellectuals and university students. However, the development of this cinema was set aside, not so much by Shah’s control, but by the import of Hollywood cinemas.
But it also created the opportunity for the independent cinema. The first successful attempt was “The Night of Hunchback,” 1964. It was the initial feature film chosen for international movie festivals. By 1970 local cinema entered its main stage. The College of Dramatic Arts already taught the first students at the beginning of the decade. Many progressive film organizations and unions came into existence; and there were several annual festivals taking place in the state.
Youth of the country demonstrated an interest in avant-garde cinema that echoed their activities (Zeydabadi-Nejad, 53-70). The best known effort was “Free Cinema.” The group was formed by several cinema students in the mid-1970s. The movement spread around the nation and soon they had own national festival. One of the most significant organizations, which was a great assistance in evolvement of Iranian film-making is the Institution for Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults. Due to these institutions many well-known filmmakers appeared during the pre-revolution period, counting Parvis Kimiavi, who created the masterpiece “Mongols,” 1973.
Role of Females in the Iranian Cinema
Throughout the whole pre-revolution time period, cinema had treated females more like objects or commodities and due to this, they vanished from the cinema during the few years following the revolution. Mariam Bassiri in her articles about Iran and local women writes, “the role of women before the revolution was extremely limited and invisible; females could only play the roles of mothers or wives” (Bassiri). Females could not influence the cinema before the revolution because of several reasons: ladies were not so literate and there were not so many social, economic, political and developmental programs in Iran; females could not take part in social affairs and demonstrate their presence in social arenas due to religious teachings.
The Islamic Revolution of 1978 altered everything. Cinema was censured because of its apparent link with the Shah’s administration and western impact. Approximately 180 cinema theatres were burned. Directors, filmmakers had to work within extremely strict censorship circumstances. Social comments were self-censored and females were virtually absent from cinema screens for years.
The fresh political, cultural and economic climate from the middle of sixties to seventies evolved an exclusive Iranian cinema that had roots in local perspectives of culture, art and literature. The conventional commercial cinema encountered a new sort of cinema. The counter cinema was a political sort of cinema, which evolved the symbolic language due to an extensive history of suppression. This cinema was extremely different from movies existing in Africa, Latin America or any other developing country, because of other social-historical contexts. Some of famous filmmakers of that time had to leave Iran because of cultural and political circumstances. Those people who remained in the state challenged the novel fashion of moral and religious censorship of culture. It should also be mentioned that the beautiful Iranian cinema of present days is the result of a tradition evolved in the pre-revolution time period.
Dabashi, Hamid. “Close Up: Iranian Cinema, Past, Present, and Future.” November 2001. Verso., pp:24-25.
Sadr, Hamid Reza. “Iranian Cinema: A Political History (International Library of Iranian Studies)” 28 November 2006. I. B. Tauris., pp:19-23.
Zeydabadi-Nejad, Saeed. “The Politics of Iranian Cinema: Film and Society in the Islamic Republic (Iranian Studies)” 12 November 2009. Routledge; 1 edition., pp:53-70.
Naficy, H. “Iranian Cinema”, in The Oxford History of World Cinema” 1996. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, pp: 672-678.
Omid, Jamal. “The History of Iranian Cinema” 1995. Tehran: Rozaneh Publication., pp: 102-120.
Bassiri, Mariam. “Women in the Iranian Cinema.” September 1997. Iranchamber.com. Web. 20 March 2012.
نوشته شده در تاريخ سه شنبه 16 ارديبهشت 1399
Administration . In 1926, Reza Pahlavi had himself crowned Shah, thus ending the Qajar Dynasty and beginning the Pahlavi Dynasty.
Domestic Policy . Shah Reza Pahlevi pursued a policy of Westernization, following the model of Ataturk's Turkey. He introduced a secular education system; religious schools were closed; he founded the first modern western-style university, the University of Tehran, in 1935. He created a modern bureaucracy. In 1935 the country was renamed from Persia into Iran. New law codes were introduced; women began to appear in public without the shador (veil) in 1936, a sign for gradual emancipation of women.
Khuzestan, where Sheikh Khaz'al, with British support, had pursued a rather independent policy, was brought under central control (1926).
In 1928-1929, Iran and Britain held negotiations over three islands in the Gulf : Tunbs, Abu Musa and Sirri, disputed by the sheikhdoms of Trucial Oman and Persia. Foreign Policy . In 1926 Iran, Turkey and Afghanistan signed a treaty of mutual security. Iran and Japan opened diplomatic relations in 1926. In 1928 the Shah abolished privileges enjoyed by foreign governments/nationals based on historical treaties; in 1932 he cancelled the agreement on which the oil production of the Anglo-Persian Oil Company was based (renamed Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1935); a new agreement, more favourable to the Persian side, was signed. Shah Reza Pahlavi's foreign policy was of concern to both the USSR and the British.
Social History . In 1926, the Iranian Baha'i minority suffered pogroms.
In 1933, Iran had a population of 15,055,115. The largest city was Tehran with 360,251, followed by Tabriz with 219,949.
The Economy . In 1932, in a currency reform the Rial replaced the Kral.
The predominant agricultural product was wheat, followed by barley and rice. The most popular livestocks were sheep and goats. In 1938. Iran had a combined total of 1,170 km of railway lines, 19,659 km of roads. 3,900 cars, 400 buses and 8,300 trucks were registered. In 1937/1938 the budget was balanced at 1,250,000,000 Rials. In 1934-1936, most imports originated from the USSR, most exports (oil) went to the British Empire and the USSR. Leading import articles were textiles and metal products, dominating export products oil, with carpets a distant second.
In 1926, the German company Junkers was granted the exclusive right of air transportation in Persia.
In May 1929, the oil industry in Abadan was affected by a strike. In 1939 the Trans-Iranian Railroad, connecting Bandar-E-Shah on the Caspian Sea with Bandar-E-Shahpur on the Persian Gulf, was opened.
In 1926, Persia produced 4.7 million metric tons of oil, in 1938 10.3 million, in 1941 6.7 million (IHS pp.361-362).
In 1933, Persia produced 1.8 million metric tons of wheat, in 1940 1.5 million (IHS p.192).
Cultural History . Large parts of the Golestan palace were razed to the ground.
In 1929 the first motion picture studio in Iran was opened.
Shah Reza Pahlavi wanted to emphasize Iranian heritage.The Persian language was cleansed of many Arab loanwords, school textbooks stressed Persia's Zoroastrian and Achaemenid past. In 1935, religious schools (of Muslim, Baha'i, Christian or any other faith) were closed. The country was renamed from Persia to Iran in 1935; many cities were renamed, parents encouraged to give their children Iranian instead of Arab names.
Foreign residents introduced sports such as soccer and skiing in the 1930es.
|History of Iran, from Persian Outpost|
Timeline of Iranian History, from Encyclopedia of the Orient
Library of Congress, Country Studies : Iran
History of the Baha'i in Iran, from Baha'i Encyclopedia
Articles Turkey-Iran Relations, Iran-United Kingdom Relations, Arthur Millspaugh, University of Tehran : Histories, Golestan Palace, Mahmoud Hessaby, Khaz'al Khan, from Wikipedia
Brief History of the Air Transport Industry in Iran, from Iran Air
The Evolution of the Iranian Airline Industry, by Abbas Atrvash
The Iranian Identity Crisis : Islam versus Iranian Identity, by Paoli Bassi
History of Banking in Iran, from Tejarat
History of Iran : Constitutional Revolution, from Iran Chamber Society
Persian Gulf's Arab Sheikhdoms Fuel Propaganda, from SMCCDI, on status of disputed islands in Gulf; biased
Abu Musa and the Tunbs, from The Persian Gulf
A Survey Catalogue and Brief Critical History of Iranian Feature Film (1896-1975), by Reza Talachian
Brief History of National Iranian Oil Company
History of Skiing in Iran, from IranMania
History of Iranian Railways, from Unofficial Homepage of the Iranian Railways
Iran, from Global History of Currencies
نوشته شده در تاريخ سه شنبه 16 ارديبهشت 1399
|Intro||Iranian film director|
|Occupations||Film director Television presenter Actor Writer Screenwriter|
|Type||Film, Television, Stage and Radio Literature|
Iraj Tahmasb (in Persian: ایرج طهماسب) is an Iranian actor, screenwriter and director of TV series and films. He is best known for co-creating of popular puppet character, Kolah Ghermezi.
- Kolah Ghermezi 94 (TV series) - 2015
- Kolah Ghermezi 93 (TV series) - 2014
- Kolah Ghermezi 92 (TV series) - 2013
- Kolah Ghermezi and Bache Naneh - 2012
- Kolah Ghermezi 91 (TV series) - 2012
- Kolah Ghermezi 90 (TV series) - 2011
- Kolah Ghermezi 88 (TV series) - 2009
- Zir-e Derakht-e Holou - 2006
- The Pastry Girl - 2002
- Kolah ghermezi and Sarvenaz - 2002
- Once Upon a Time - 1999
- Kolah Ghermezi and Pesar Khaleh - 1994
- Days of Waiting - 1987
نوشته شده در تاريخ سه شنبه 16 ارديبهشت 1399
هراند میناسیان (ارمنی: Հրանդ Մինասեան; انگلیسی: Hrand Minassian) (زاده ۱۳۱۵ خورشیدی) کارگردان، تهیهکننده، تدوینگر و دستیار کارگردان ایرانی ارمنیتبار است.
هراند میناسیان متولد سال ۱۳۱۵ خورشیدی (۱۹۳۶ میلادی) در رشت میباشد. فعالیت در سینمای حرفهای را با فیلم «تپهٔ عشق» به عنوان فیلمبردار آغاز کرد. از سال ۱۳۳۹ خورشیدی (۱۹۶۰ میلادی) نیز به نویسندگی و کارگردانی فیلمهای مستند و تبلیغاتی پرداخت. در سال ۱۳۴۴ خورشیدی (۱۹۶۵ میلادی) با مشارکت برادرش، سلیمان میناسیان، استودیو «چاپلین فیلم» را تأسیس کرد. در این استودیو در کنار فیلمهای تبلیغاتی دو فیلم به نامهای طلوع (۱۳۴۹/۱۹۶۳) و فریاد (۱۹۷۱/۱۳۵۰) ساخته شد که هراند و سلیمان میناسیان نویسنده، کارگردان، تهیهکننده و فیلمبردار این دو فیلم بودند. فیلم طلوع برندهٔ سومین «جشنوارهٔ فیلم سپاس» شد.
در سال ۱۳۵۹ خورشیدی (۱۹۸۰ میلادی) به ایالات متحده آمریکا مهاجرت کرد و در آنجا شروع به کار آزاد نمود.
|چرا دریا طوفانی شد؟||۱۳۴۴||دستیار کارگردان||ناتمام|
|خشت و آئینه||۱۳۴۴||دستیار کارگردان و دستیار فیلمبردار|| |
|طلوع||۱۳۴۹||کارگردان، تهیهکننده و فیلمنامهنویس||با همکاری سلیمان میناسیان|
|فریاد||۱۳۵۰||کارگردان و تهیهکننده||با همکاری سلیمان میناسیان|
- فهرست کارگردانان ارمنی
- فهرست کارگردانان ایرانی
- لازاریان، ژانت دیگرانوهی. «سینما». در دانشنامه ایرانیان ارمنی. چاپ اول. تهران: انتشارات هیرمند، ۱۳۸۲. ۴۱۷. شابک ۳-۵۰-۶۹۷۴-۹۶۴.
- سید مرتضی سید محمدی. فرهنگ کارگردانان سینمای ایران ۱۳۷۷–۱۳۰۹. تهران: نشر سیمرو، ۱۳۷۸. ۸۲۰. ISBN 964-5685-35-4.
- گروه تحقیق و پژوهش سینما. ارامنه و سینمای ایران. تهران: انتشارات روزنه کار، ۱۳۸۳. ISBN 964-6728-44-8.
- هراند میناسیان در بانک جامع اطلاعات سینمای ایران (سوره سینما)
پیوند به بیرون
نوشته شده در تاريخ سه شنبه 16 ارديبهشت 1399
|Type||Film, Television, Stage and Radio|
نوشته شده در تاريخ سه شنبه 16 ارديبهشت 1399
|Occupations||Actor Film director Film editor Screenwriter|
|Type||Film, Television, Stage and Radio|
|Birth||1 January 1980 (Rasht, Gilan Province, Iran)|
Houman Seyyedi (Persian: هومن سيدی , born 1980 in Rasht) is an Iranian actor and filmmaker.
Houman Seyyedi is an Iranian theatre, television and cinema actor.
After getting a high school diploma in Graphic Design, he attended some courses at Iranian Youth Cinema Society of Rasht and then directed several short movies.
He made his movie debut with ‘A Piece of Bread’ (2004), directed by Kamal Tabrizi.
His directing of short movies, including ’35 Meters Below Sea Level’ and ‘Blue Tooth’, earned him several awards at Tehran International Short Film Festival. He also directed his first long movie ‘Africa’ in 2010.
Seyyedi, who was the writer as well as editor of ‘Africa’, managed to receive an award for Best Movie in video works section of the 29 Fajr International Film Festival.
He has participated in several movies, including ‘Fireworks Wednesday’ (2005), ‘Barefoot in Heaven’ (2005), ‘He Who Goes to Sea’ (2006), ‘The Wound on Eve’s Shoulder’ (2007), ‘The Freeway’ (2010), ‘Thirteen’ (2012), ‘The Exclusive Line’ (2013), ‘Confessions of My Dangerous Mind’ (2014), ‘Buffalo’ (2014), ‘I am Diego Maradona’ (2014), ‘Sleep Bridge’ (2015) and ‘Profiles’ (2015).
Seyyedi has also taken part in various TV series such as ‘Never-ending Road’ (2006), ‘The 30th Day’ (2011), ‘Until Being with Sorayya’ (2011) and ‘Mehrabad’ (2012).
- Eclucive path
- 2007 Sayab
- 2005 barefoot in paradise
- 2005 Chaharshanbe Suri
- 2004 A piece of bread
- 2007 Rahe Bipayan (Endless Path)
نوشته شده در تاريخ سه شنبه 16 ارديبهشت 1399
|Intro||Filmmaker, writer and photographer|
|A.K.A.||Hossein Rajabian (Persian : حسین رجبیان _ born: July 5, 1984) is an Iranian Filmmaker, Writer and Photographer.|
|Occupations||Film director Writer Photographer|
|Type||Arts Film, Television, Stage and Radio Literature|
|Birth||5 July 1984 (Sari, Iran, Central District, Sari County, Mazandaran Province)|
Hossein Rajabian (Persian: حسین رجبیان; born 5 July 1984) is an Iranian filmmaker, writer and photographer.
Hossein Rajabian started off his artistic career in a theater school. Later he made his debut in cinema by making and editing short and documentary films. His artistic résumé is dotted with different projects ranging from making (feature) films, writing a number of screenplays for feature films, essays on cinema, plays, and carrying out artistic-photographical projects and film workshops. He also found his way into the Faculty of Art and Architecture in Tehran and studied dramatic literature, but he never finished his studies there. Later he gained admission to the University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna to continue his studies in cinema and theater, but he was captured by security forces and his passport was seized before setting out for Austria and was barred from taking up academic studies at home and abroad. “ People in distance ” is the name of a black and white photography project implemented by Hossein Rajabian.
Apprehension and court case
Hossein Rajabian, an Iranian writer, photographer and independent filmmaker, After finishing his first feature film, was arrested by Iranian security forces on 5 October 2013 outside his office [in Sari] alongside two musicians, and was transferred to Ward 2-A of Evin Prison where all three of them were held in solitary confinement for more than two months and were threatened with televised confessions. He was released on bail (around $66,000) in mid-December, pending trial. Two years later, his case was heard at Branch 28 of Tehran Revolutionary Court which was presided over by Judge Moghisseh (Summer 2015). He was sentenced to six years in prison and fines for pursuing illegal cinematic activities, launching propaganda against the establishment and hurling insults at sanctities. On appeal, his sentence was changed to three years imprisonment and three years of suspended jail and Fines.
Imprisonment and Hunger Strike
Hossein Rajabian was sent to the ward 7 of Evin Prison in Tehran. After spending one third of his total period of imprisonment (that is 11 months), he went on hunger strike to protest against unjust trial, lack of medical facilities, and transfer of his brother to another ward called section 8 of the same prison. During the first hunger strike period, which lasted 14 days, he was transferred to hospital because of pulmonary infection and he could not continue his hunger strike because of the interference of the representative of the prosecutor who was sent as an intermediary. After some time, he sent an open letter to the judicial authorities of Iran and went again on strike which brought him the supports of international artists. After 36 days of hunger strike, he could convince the judicial authorities of Iran to review his case and grant him medical leave for the treatment of his left kidney suffered from infections and blood arising out of hunger strike. he, after a contentious struggle with the judicial officer of the prison was sent to the ward 8 for punishment.
Official Reactions of the Senior Officials of the World
After imprisonment of Hossein Rajabian, senior officials of the world started to react officially to this sentence. For instance, Ban Ki-moon, secretary general of the United Nations, issued a special declaration about the human rights in the world. In the ninth page of the annual declaration, he refers to the conditions of Hossein Rajabian in the Iranian prisons, and asks the Iranian authorities to release this filmmaker unconditionally. UN Special Rapporteur for human rights in Iran Asma Jahangir, in her annual report called for the unconditional release of Hossein Rajabian and other prisoners in Iran. It can be referred to the protesting speech delivered by Wilfred Moore, the Canadian Liberal Senator in the senate against the Iranian authorities and in support of Hossein Rajabian. After the imprisonment of Hossein Rajabian, Åse Kleveland who is a Norwegian an artist and political leader declared her support to him, and asked for unconditional release of him and all artists imprisoned throughout the world. Following that, Philip Luther, the head of Amnesty International published an official video talking about Hossein Rajabian and asked all artists of the world to launch a worldwide campaign to support him. After organizing an international petition by the Amnesty International, Johnny Depp, the American actor, and Peter Gabriel, the well-known musician initiated a campaign with the motto “Art is not a Crime” to protest against censorship and support Hossein Rajabian, Iranian Artist and all other imprisoned artists.
On the other hand, a petition was signed by more than 12,000 people of different human right activists and artists addressing the Iranian authorities to review the judicial case of Hossein Rajabian and several other prisoners. Finally, the United Nations Human Rights Committee unanimously passed a resolution against Iranian government for the flagrant violation of human rights as a reaction to the collective hunger strike of Hossein Rajabian and seven other political and ideological prisoners of Evin Prison. Following that, the United States Senate extended the sanctions imposed on Iran for the violation of human rights for another ten years. The citizens of European countries initiated a supporting campaign and a sit-in in front of the Iranian Embassies in different countries while showing his photos.
Film release in protest
In protest at his sentence and seizure of his film materials, Hossein Rajabian released the medium-quality copy of his film The Upside-down Triangleonline.
Media Reaction to court sentence
A newspaper in Europe carrying the message and image of Iranian filmmaker Hossein Rajabian in prison. (March, 2016)
The news on the imprisonment of Hossein Rajabian, the Iranian artist, had globally great worldwide reflection, and it was covered by many news agencies including Washington Post, Guardian, Al-Arabiya, BBC, Le Figaro, CNN, AL JAZEERA etc. The arrest and conviction of Hossein Rajabian was given extensive coverage by media outlets in Iran and other countries.In an exclusive interview, Amnesty International's Deputy Director for the Middle East and North Africa Said Boumedouha expressed objection to Rajabian's sentence. Afterwards, Amnesty International launched a global campaign and petition calling on all artists across the world to sign the petition and join the campaign. More than 20,000 artists from four corners of the world joined the campaign, chief among them [musician-turned-actor] Jared Leto, an Oscar winning actor, and Ai Weiwei, a Chinese Contemporary artist and activist, who released the news on their Twitter pages.
Earlier, other institutions such as PEN International, International Campaign for Human Rights [in Iran], European Council of Artists (ECA), the European Composer and Songwriter Alliance, Freemuse [Freedom of Musical Expression], etc. simultaneously released a statement calling on Iranian authorities to release Rajabian. In another move, as many as 165 individuals involved in media and cinema activities in Iran and foreign countries sent a letter to Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance Ali Jannati, and UN Special Rapporteur for human rights in Iran Ahmed Shaheed, in his annual report called for the unconditional release of Hossein Rajabian and two other prisoners.
Sources and external links
نوشته شده در تاريخ سه شنبه 16 ارديبهشت 1399
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